Right now is the birthday of Carl Paul Gottfried Linde (June 11, 1842–November 16, 1934). He “was a German scientist, engineer, and businessman. He found a refrigeration cycle and invented the primary industrial-scale air separation and fuel liquefaction processes. These breakthroughs laid the spine for the 1913 Nobel Prize in Physics. Linde was a member of scientific and engineering associations, together with being on the board of trustees of the Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt and the Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities. Linde was additionally the founder of what’s now often known as The Linde Group, the world’s largest industrial gases firm, and ushered the creation of the availability chain of commercial gases as a worthwhile line of companies. He was knighted in 1897 as Ritter von Linde.”
His significance to brewing, particularly yo lager beers, is plain. His first refrigerating machines have been constructed for breweries. That is state of affairs previous to his innovations, from the College of Chicago:
Earlier than the event of mechanical refrigeration applied sciences, brewers have been reliant on ice harvested from lakes and ponds and saved in ice-houses. The invention of mechanical refrigeration machines offered business brewers with the know-how essential to hold beer for longer durations of time. Refrigeration know-how was additionally utilized in particular railroad boxcars, allowing brewers to ship their product over longer distances. Some of the profitable early designs for a mechanical refrigeration system was invented by Carl von Linde (a professor at Munich Polytechnic Faculty) and was an ammonia-based vapor-compression system.
One of many drawing from his first patent, in 1873.
This historical past of the event of Linde’s refrigeration machines is from a brochure ready by his the corporate he based, The Linde Group.
Preliminary contacts with breweries
After von Linde had revealed his concepts in 1870 and 1871 within the Polytechnic Affiliation’s “Bavarian Business and Commerce Journal,” which he additionally edited, a improvement was set in movement that may decide the path of all the remainder of his life. His articles on refrigeration know-how had aroused the curiosity of brewers who had been on the lookout for a dependable year-round technique of refrigeration for the fermentation and storage of their beer. In the summertime of 1871 an settlement was made between von Linde, Austrian brewer August Deiglmayr (Dreher Brewery) and Munich brewer Gabriel Sedlmayr to construct a check machine based on Linde’s design on the Spaten Brewery. With their assist, Linde’s concepts can be put into follow, so that a refrigeration unit might then be put in on the Dreher Brewery, the most important brewery in Austria, within the scorching, humid metropolis of Trieste (now a part of Italy).
Constructing the primary Linde ice machine
The development plans have been lastly accomplished in January 1873 and the patent utilized for. The Bavarian patent required, nevertheless, that the machine be in operation inside one yr. Subsequently von Linde and Sedlmayr positioned an order with Maschinenfabrik Augsburg that very same month to construct it. And with some effort they succeeded in beginning operation by the necessary patent deadline in January 1874. In fact, the primary machine did have its difficulties.
The primary drawback was that von Linde’s mercury seal didn’t work correctly in order that the methyl ether used because the refrigerant leaked out of the compressor. In Linde’s phrases, “This design was not an appropriate answer for the necessities of sensible use. So it appeared crucial to construct a second machine.”
As a way to finance it, von Linde assigned a part of the patent rights to Sedlmayr, to locomotive builder Georg Krauss and to the director of Maschinenfabrik Augsburg, Heinrich von Buz. In return, they offered the funds wanted for the event, constructing and testing of a brand new refrigeration machine.
Constructing the second refrigeration machine
Together with his scholar and assistant Friedrich Schipper, von Linde designed a brand new compressor, which had a considerably easier and simpler seal. The sealing materials used within the newly designed gland development was glycerin and the extra environment friendly ammonia was used because the refrigerant. The brand new machine weighed and price solely half as a lot as its predecessor.
Within the spring of 1875 Linde ordered the brand new compressor from Maschinenfabrik Augsburg and submitted it for a Bavarian patent, which was awarded on March 25, 1876 for ten years. He acquired the German Reichspatent in August 1877.
“The very first trials with this second compressor yielded absolutely passable outcomes,” stated von Linde, not with out delight. The machine was bought to the Dreher Brewery in September 1876, erected beneath Schipper’s supervision and began up in spring 1877. It ran till 1908, offering refrigeration and dehumidification
However regardless of this success, Linde created a 3rd design instantly after the second machine was put in at Dreher, turning his consideration to fuel pumps, which have been already extensively used. This third, horizontal design proved to be the perfect chilly vapor machine available on the market when it comes to its worth/efficiency ratio and have become the usual sort of Linde compressor for many years to return. Through the greater than six-year improvement and experimentation part, a dependable answer additionally needed to be discovered for distributing the generated chilly. After lengthy trials, in executing an order for the Heineken Brewery in Rotterdam, von Linde developed a way of circulating chilly saltwater brine in a pipe cooling system (pure convection cooling), which was put in on the ceiling of the refrigeration rooms.
And this inset is concerning the firm’s “First clients and companions: brewers.”
In 1840, many continental European breweries switched to backside fermented lager manufacturing (in distinction to the “English” top-fermented brown beers or ales) as a result of the beer remained recent longer and clients most popular the style. The ice machine described by von Linde appeared ideally suited for attaining the required decrease temperatures and to make sure exact cooling management. So it’s no marvel that some main brewers confirmed nice curiosity on this invention.
Gabriel Sedlmayr of the Munich Spaten Brewerey was prepared to let von Linde experiment with an early refrigeration machine in his brewery within the early 1870s. The primary unit functioned passably properly, however was too giant and had quite a few flaws. The drawings submitted for the patent confirmed that Sedlmayr himself had a hand within the second model, which was considerably smaller in measurement and labored properly. This unit was bought to the Trieste Dreher Brewery for air cooling.
With Sedlmayr as an middleman, the Rotterdam Heineken Brewery underneath its director Feldmann ordered an ice machine in 1877 for ice manufacturing. In his collaboration with the Heineken Brewery, Linde developed “pure convection cooling” with a system of cooling pipes underneath the ceiling of the cellar. Feldmann in flip put von Linde in touch with J. C. Jacobsen, head of the Carlsberg Brewery in Copenhagen, who ordered a big refrigeration unit in 1878.
Karl Lang, technical adviser and supervisory board member of a number of Rhineland breweries, additionally performed a big position in the course of the founding interval of the “Gesellschaft für Linde’s Eismaschinen.” He launched Linde to brewery director Gustav Jung, who not solely ordered a refrigeration unit but in addition turned, with Lang and banker Moritz von Hirsch, a shareholder and Supervisory Board member of the Linde Firm.
The connection between the Linde Firm and brewery administrators was maintained to some extent over a number of generations. After the demise of Karl Lang in 1894 his place as chairman of the Supervisory Board was taken over by Gustav Jung, adopted by his son Adolf Jung in 1886. Carl Sedlmayr took over for his father Gabriel on the Supervisory Board and in 1915, the third era of this household adopted with Anton Sedlmayr. The Jung and Sedlmayr households held their Supervisory Board seats till after the Second World Struggle.
Right here’s Linde’s entry from the Oxford Companion to Beer, written by Horst Dornbush.
Linde, Carl von
was a 19th-century German engineer and one of many world’s main inventors of refrigeration know-how. See refrigeration. Beginning in the midst of the 18th century, many individuals earlier than Linde had tinkered with synthetic refrigeration contraptions, however Linde was the primary to develop a sensible refrigeration system that was particularly designed for preserving fermenting and maturing beer cool—in Linde’s case, Bavarian lagers—through the scorching summer time months. Linde was born within the village of Berndorf, in Franconia, in 1842, at a time when warm-weather brewing was strictly forbidden in his native Bavaria; nobody was allowed to brew beer between Saint George’s Day (April 23) and Michael’s Day (September 29). This was to keep away from heat fermentations, which offered excellent habitats for noxious airborne micro organism to proliferate and prompted yeasts to supply undesirable fermentation flavors. Each made summer time beers typically unpalatable. Summer time brewing prohibition had been in drive since 1553 and was solely lifted in 1850, by which era Bavarian brewers had discovered to pack their fermentation cellars with ice that they had laboriously harvested within the winter from frozen ponds and lakes. There needed to be a greater option to maintain beer chilly…and that was simply the problem for a budding mechanical engineering professor like Linde, who had joined Munich’s Technical College in 1868. See weihenstephan. The essential precept of refrigeration had been understood for hundreds of years. As a result of chilly is merely the absence of warmth, to make issues chilly, one should withdraw warmth. Compressing a medium generates warmth; subsequently decompressing or evaporating it shortly absorbs warmth from its setting. Units based mostly on this precept at the moment are commonly known as vapor-compression refrigeration techniques; apply this to a fermenting or lagering vessel, and it turns into a beer-cooling system. For Linde, the subsequent query was the selection of refrigerant. Initially he experimented with dimethyl ether however ultimately settled on ammonia due to its speedy enlargement (and thus cooling) properties. He referred to as his invention an “ammonia chilly machine.” Linde had acquired a lot of the funding for this improvement from the Spaten Brewery in Munich, which was additionally the primary buyer to put in the brand new gadget—then nonetheless pushed by dimethyl ether—in 1873. By 1879, Linde had give up his professorship and shaped his personal “Ice Machine Firm,” which continues to be in operation immediately as Linde AG, headquartered in Wiesbaden, Germany. By 1890, Linde had bought 747 refrigeration models machines to varied breweries and chilly storage amenities. He continued to innovate and invented new units most of his life, together with gear for liquefying air, and for the manufacturing of pure oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen. In 1897 he was knighted, and from then on might append the honorific “von” to his surname. He died a affluent industrialist in Munich in 1934, on the age of 92, and as we speak Linde AG is a number one gases and engineering firm with virtually 48,000 staff working in additional than 100 nations worldwide. For all his many accomplishments, Linde’s pioneering work in synthetic beer cooling know-how is probably his most enduring legacy.